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Additional Indicators

In this third year of the Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) project, some topics have been refined and restructured and several new topic areas added. Below is a description of the data collected.

  •  Land

    EBA land indicators measure laws and regulations that impact access to land markets for producers and agribusinesses. The indicators are organized as follows:

    • Coverage, relevance, and currency of land records: This indicator measures the extent to which relevant and up to date documentation of land rights is available for all. A key purpose of land records is to ensure land owners are confident enough about their rights being protected to make long-term investments in agriculture and transfer them to others, if they decide to take up nonagricultural opportunities.
    • State land management: The indicator measures how state-owned land, such as forests, parks, road reserves and other public spaces are identified and thus can be protected against encroachment. The issue is particularly acute in low-income settings where laws stipulate that all land not explicitly registered or occupied by private parties—which are often farmlands—belongs to the state. 
    • Equity and fairness: This indicator measures the extent to which gender aspects of land are considered in policy-making, land can be accessed via rental or sales markets, and land rights are protected against expropriation without fair compensation. As a basic asset, equal treatment for different types of land owners or users is important, whether by gender or type of documentation.

    Download data for 38 countries

  •  Livestock

    EBA livestock indicators measure legislation impacting the private sector’s ability to supply the market with effective and safe veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). Data assess regulatory requirements for registration, importation and marketing of VMPs: 

    • Registration of VMPs: Registration, or marketing authorization, is a critical step in a country’s control system for VMPs. Most countries require VMP registration before it can be manufactured, imported, distributed and sold.
    • Authorization of importers: In many countries, the main supply of VMPs comes from outside the country and import licenses are a useful way to impose minimum safety and qualification requirements on the companies involved. The data collected cover import restrictions such as types of entities allowed to import VMPs and whether importers are required to employ specialized staff.
    • Marketing of VMPs: Labeling requirements on marketed VMPs are critical to ensuring their proper handling and administration. In addition, knowing what diseases are present in a country, their geographic location and the year of their outbreak are all key factors in facilitating effective and efficient distribution of VMPs.

    Download data for 62 countries

  •  Environmental sustainability

    The EBA environmental sustainability indicators measure the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the management and sustainable use of natural resources that are vital for agricultural production.

    • Conservation of plant genetic resources: The conservation of a diverse pool of genetic resources supports future crop production, since the development of adapted and improved seed varieties relies on the use of genetic variability, mainly found in local varieties and crop wild relatives. Data in this area cover the laws, regulations and policies that address the conservation of plant genetic resources in national genebanks. It also includes alternative conservation mechanisms at the farm and local level, such as community seed banks, diversity fairs or participatory plant breeding.
    • Access and sustainable use of plant genetic resources: Farmers will preserve diverse genetic resources depending on the commercial value such resources can command in the market. Regulations and policies that facilitate the commercialization of seeds of local varieties through registries or simplified registration requirements are important ways to encourage that these genetically rich varieties to circulate in markets. Data cover laws and regulations that facilitate the availability of local varieties, by recognizing farmer’s rights to save, use, exchange and sell seeds from their own harvests and establishing clear rules for accessing plant genetic resources.
    • Water quality management: Agriculture is a major cause of the degradation of surface and groundwater resources. Erosion and chemical runoff, such as nitrate pollution from excessive use of fertilizers and intensive livestock rearing, affect water quality. Data cover the institutional framework and regulations aimed at minimizing the contamination of water bodies from agricultural activities, such as buffer zones and setbacks, and regulations on hazardous and obsolete pesticides. 
    • Soil health management: Land use plans allow governments to assess all current and potential uses in a territory and adopt the land use structure that best meets users’ needs while safeguarding valuable resources for future generations. Soil quality indicators are useful to better understand and monitor the impact of soil management practices. Data are collected on the legal and institutional frameworks applicable to land use planning and soil monitoring.

    Download data for 62 countries

  •  Gender

    The following areas of research were chosen for coverage in EBA 2017: availability of gender-disaggregated data, restrictions on women’s employment and activity, women’s participation and leadership in collective groups and nondiscrimination legal provisions. These questions build on findings from the Women, Business and the Law dataset, which already identifies many relevant constraints.

    • Availability of gender-disaggregated data:  Regulation can ensure banks and MFIs collect gender-disaggregated data by including such requirements in their reporting obligations. The land topic provides information on the availability of gender-disaggregated data on land ownership across 38 countries. 
    • Restrictions to women’s employment and activity: Regulations restricting women’s participation in certain professions actually deny income-generating opportunities to women and shrink the pool of workers that firms can employ. Identifying employment restrictions in the agricultural and agribusiness sector can complement the sectors already identified by the Women, Business and the Law dataset, including construction, factory work, metalworking and mining. EBA collected data on employment restrictions in the context of handling pesticides or fertilizers, driving trucks and using agricultural tractors.
    • Women’s membership and participation in producer organizations: Limitations on the ability of women to become members of organizations such as agricultural cooperatives
      compromise their ability to capitalize and commercialize their produce, and turn smallholdings into profitable agribusinesses. Strong laws and regulations stipulate mandatory membership criteria that cooperatives apply to all member applicants, to avoid the development of bylaws that may restrict women’s participation. Membership criteria requiring land ownership or full-time farm employment, or restricting membership to heads of household or to one member per household, have a tendency to limit women’s access to member-based institutions on a de facto basis. Encouraging women to hold leadership positions in local organizations also plays an important role in promoting gender equality. Quotas can establish the necessary critical mass of women as members and leaders to engender change in policy and the institutional culture and lead to more productive, profitable organizations.
    • Nondiscrimination: EBA also collected data on whether specific laws on producer organizations, financial cooperatives and water user organizations require them to adhere to principles of nondiscrimination and if gender is specified as a protected category.  A nondiscrimination provision is based on the principle of fairness and equality under the law. It prohibits discrimination in the treatment of members regardless of gender, profession, income and so on. For instance, it may include language requiring fair terms for women and men when joining as a member or applying for a loan.

    Download data for 62 countries

  •  Other focus areas

    During this cycle, the EBA team also collected additional exploratory data in a number of topic areas. This data is not scored. Rather, in some cases this data was collected to explore areas for possible future development, and in other cases, this data has been collected to provide valuable additional context.

    • Finance: There are additional data available on partial credit guarantee systems, whether commercial banks are legally mandated to lend a certain percentage of their portfolio for the purpose of promoting agricultural activities, and the maximum interest rate that commercial banks can charge on an agricultural loan.
    • Transport: Additional data examine exemptions from licensing requirements, guidelines establishing road transport prices, and the documents required for offering truck services.
    • Markets: There are additional data on Agricultural trade (time and motion) for the seven EU countries studied, involving exports to non-EU member trading partners. Additional data on contract farming (agricultural contracts) are also available.
    • Water: Additional data are available with further details on smallholder water use, gender quotas to foster the participation of women in water management, public notice procedures for water permit applications, water permit transfers, and water user organizations. For information and communications technology, there are additional data available on whether universal access/service funds are active and whether the details of project financed by funds are publicly available.

    Download data for 62 countries