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These are the most frequently asked questions about the Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) project. If your question is not listed below, please write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will get back to you with a response.
Current data and analysis are available for 62 countries, including: Armenia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Egypt, Arab Rep., Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Rep., Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
A subnational approach on India was piloted in 4 different states to track state level differences and will build on it for future data collection and analytical work. EBA is working to identify countries where a subnational analysis would be most appropriate and develop a subnational methodology that could be used on-demand in a manner similar to the Doing Business subnational analyses and reports.
Future reports will allow the team to monitor progress of countries in each of the topic areas by tracking regulatory reforms that affect the indicators measured. Country coverage is also expected to expand to cover between 80 and 100 countries.
To select the countries where EBA indicators would be relevant and useful, the team analyzed the importance of the agricultural sector in all countries by looking at the contribution of agriculture to GDP and employment. The countries were grouped into 5 categories: Agriculture-based, Pre-transition, Transition, Urbanized and Developed.
To select the countries to be included in the pilot phase, several additional criteria were applied. For example, countries with small agricultural sectors (defined as having agriculture value added at PPP of less than US$1 billion) were excluded unless the population employed in agriculture is more than 100,000 people.
From an initial selection of 108 countries, to select the 10 pilot countries and subsequent scale ups to 40 and 62 countries, the team made sure that the countries represented different geographical regions and income groups.
The globally comparable nature of EBA data allows policymakers to learn from good regulatory practices elsewhere in the world. As such, policy makers and legislators can use EBA data as a starting point to guide and structure policy discussions and reform efforts. Similarly, EBA data can be used by private sector institutions, civil society organizations and academics to promote reform of burdensome and inefficient agricultural regulations. Multilateral organizations, global finance institutions, development agencies and policy operational specialists may also use EBA data as a way to inform their own activities, understand the regulatory context of specific initiatives, and monitor progress.
More broadly, EBA hopes to stimulate more research on how regulations affect various outcome variables in the agricultural sector.
Agriculture connects all 17 SDGs and is at the core of SDG1 and SDG2, which call for ending extreme poverty and hunger. The link between EBA and the SDGs is twofold: on the one hand, the SDG targets were considered in the refinement of EBA’s indicators; on the other hand, specific data points from EBA may serve as metrics for tracking countries’ progress on SDG objectives.
EBA has specific links to a number of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including Target 1.4 (Access to Basic Services), Target 2.5 (Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Plants), Target 6.3 (Improving Water Quality), Target 6.4 (Efficient and Sustainable Water Withdrawals), Target 6.5 (Integrated Water Resource Management), Target 9.3 (Enterprise Access to Financial Services) and Target 9c (Access to Information and Communications Technology), among others. Please see Box 1.2 of the EBA 2017 report for more information.
EBA indicators promote laws and regulations that are conducive to good governance, inclusive value chains, competition, market transparency, food safety and private sector development. In this context, attention to smallholder farmers is a key feature of the EBA indicators. For example:
EBA recognizes the importance and complementarity of both formal and farmer-managed seed systems. While the Seed indicators look at the formal seed sector, this year’s report also pilots indicators that look at the circulation of seed produced by farmer-managed seed systems under its Environmental Sustainability topic. The environmental sustainability indicators provide comparable data on practices that allow quality seed developed by farmers and their communities to be registered and made available to more farmers on the open market. The data collected this year can be accessed here.
Access to land is critical for millions of poor people. This year EBA has piloted new land indicators that measure the quality of regulations in terms of three main focus areas: i) coverage, relevance and currency of records for private land, and the extent to which relevant and up to date documentation of land rights is publicly available; ii) state land management, which measures how state-owned land is identified and protected against encroachment; and iii) equity and fairness, which measures gender-differentiated recording and reporting, freedom of leasing and procedural safeguards in case of expropriation.
Given that policies and laws studied by EBA take a long time to reform, the team will move to producing reports every second year. One report, covering up to 80 countries, will be produced in early-2019. In the non-reporting years, the team will work on dissemination and outreach, producing background research and notes, as well as engaging in more in-depth consultations to improve its methodology and products with relevant stakeholders.
EBA has so far developed eight scored topics, namely seed, fertilizer, machinery, markets, transport, finance, water, and information and communication technology (ICT), defining regulatory good practices to assign scores. Two additional topics—land and livestock—are under development but initial results from data collection are presented in the 2017 report. Two overarching themes—gender and environmental sustainability—continue to be included in the report’s analysis to ensure that these important linkages are captured and the good practices encouraged by EBA are inclusive and sustainable.
Different businesses, activities, legal obligations, and interactions with government institutions are measured, depending on the topic and specific indicator coverage. For example, in the Markets topic, the Agricultural Trade indicator measures agriculture-specific regulations applicable to businesses, including cooperatives, engaged in the domestic trade and export of agricultural products. More detail on the businesses and regulations covered by each topic can be found in the Methodology section of the website and in Appendix B of the EBA 2017 report.